Ná»i dung tÃ i liá»u Quy táº¯c sá» dá»¥ng Gerund vÃ Infinitive ÄÆ°á»£c Há»C247 biÃªn soáº¡n vÃ tá»ng há»£p dÆ°á»i ÄÃ¢y sáº½ há» thá»ng nhá»¯ng kiáº¿n thá»©c cÆ¡ báº£n vá» sá» há»¯u cÃ¡ch nháº±m giÃºp báº¡n Äá»c cá»§ng cá» kiáº¿n thá»©c lÃ½ thuyáº¿t vÃ rÃ¨n luyá»n ká»¹ nÄng giáº£i bÃ i táºp mÃ´n Tiáº¿ng Anh 10. Má»i cÃ¡c báº¡n cÃ¹ng tham kháº£o.
QUY Táº®C Sá»¬ Dá»¤NG GERUND VÃ INFINITIVE
1. KhÃ¡i niá»m
Danh Äá»ng tá»« (Gerund) vÃ Äá»ng tá»« nguyÃªn máº«u (Infinitive) lÃ gÃ¬?
Danh Äá»ng tá»« (Gerund) lÃ nhá»¯ng tá»« cÃ³ cáº¥u trÃºc nhÆ° má»t Äá»ng tá»«, nhÆ°ng láº¡i cÃ³ chá»©c nÄng lÃ m danh tá»«. Danh Äá»ng tá»« lÃ nhá»¯ng Äá»ng tá»« thÃªm âingâ Äá» biáº¿n thÃ nh danh tá»«.
Äá»ng tá»« nguyÃªn máº«u (infinitive) trong tiáº¿ng Anh lÃ nhá»¯ng Äá»ng tá»« cÃ³ cáº¥u trÃºc cÆ¡ báº£n nháº¥t. NÃ³i cÃ¡ch khÃ¡c, chÃºng lÃ nhá»¯ng Äá»ng tá»« xuáº¥t hiá»n trong tá»« Äiá»n tiáº¿ng Anh mÃ chÃºng ta cÃ³ thá» dá» dÃ ng tÃ¬m tháº¥y ÄÆ°á»£c. Äá»ng tá»« nguyÃªn máº«u thÆ°á»ng ÄÆ°á»£c chia thÃ nh 2 loáº¡i: Äá»ng tá»« Äi kÃ¨m bá»i âtoâ, vÃ Äá»ng tá»« khÃ´ng cÃ³ âtoâ.
2. 5 quy táº¯c Äá» sá» dá»¥ng thÃ nh tháº¡o Gerund vÃ Infinitive
2.1. Qui táº¯c 1: Gerunds cÃ³ thá» lÃ m chá»§ ngá»¯ trong cÃ¢u
HÃ£y theo dÃµi má»t vÃ i vÃ dá»¥ sau:
- Swimming is good for your health.
- Making mistakes bring me more experiences.
- Becoming an engineer is a childhood dream
Nhá»¯ng tá»« ÄÆ°á»£c in Äáºm (âswimming,â âmaking mistakes,â âBecoming an engineer â) lÃ nhá»¯ng danh Äá»ng tá»« vá»i chá»©c nÄng lÃ m chá»§ ngá»¯ trong cÃ¢u.
2.2. Qui táº¯c 2: Cáº£ Gerunds vÃ Infinitive Äá»u cÃ³ thá» lÃ m tÃ¢n ngá»¯
Báº¡n cÃ³ thá» nÃ³i âI enjoy drawing.â vÃ báº¡n cÅ©ng cÃ³ thá» nÃ³i âYesterday, I decided to draw.â
CÃ¡c Äá»ng tá»« Äi kÃ¨m vá»i Infinitive:
agree: I agreed to help her.
decide: I decided not to take part in the meeting.
deserve: Everyone deserves to be respected.
expect: I expect to see the new movie tomorrow.
hope: We were hoping to avoid traffic by leaving early.
learn: He learned not to trust anyone.
need: She needs to learn English.
offer: I offered to help Susan with homework.
plan: We are planning to our picnic tomorrow.
promise: My mother promised to buy a new dress for me.
seem: We seem to be lost.
wait: I cannot wait to see him.
want: I want to go to the movie theater.
CÃ¡c Äá»ng tá»« Äi kÃ¨m vá»i Gerunds:
admit: They admitted going to the zoo.
advise: I advise proceeding (moving forward) with caution.
avoid: She avoided asking him the question about his mother.
consider (think about): I considered staying silent, but I had to tell her.
deny: I denied going to the party.
involve: The course involved writing three tests.
mention (say something): She mentioned seeing my brother at the school.
recommend: I recommend watching this movie.
risk: Donât risk losing your job!
suggest: I suggest going to the library.
2.3. Qui táº¯c 3: Infinitive cÃ³ thá» sá» dá»¥ng sau má»t sá» tÃnh tá»«
- It is not easy to graduate from university.
- It is necessary to speak English to work in a hotel.
- It is wonderful to have close friends.
Khi miÃªu táº£ má»t thá»© gÃ¬ ÄÃ³ báº±ng tÃnh tá»« (Nhá»¯ng tá»« in nghiÃªng trong vÃ dá»¥), thÃ¬ theo sau nÃ³ pháº£i lÃ má»t infinitive. Sá» dá»¥ng gerunds trong trÆ°á»ng há»£p nÃ y lÃ sai.
Tuy nhiÃªn, náº¿u báº¡n muá»n biáº¿n nhá»¯ng tá»« in Äáºm thÃ nh chá»§ ngá»¯, báº¡n sáº½ pháº£i chuyá»n chÃºng thÃ nh gerunds (xem qui táº¯c 1)
- Graduating from university is not easy.
- Speaking English is necessary to work in a hotel.
- Having close friends is wonderful.
2.4. Qui táº¯c 4: Chá» cÃ³ infinitives ÄÆ°á»£c dÃ¹ng sau tÃ¢n ngá»¯ chá» ngÆ°á»i.
âWe asked her not to go.â
Trong vÃ dá»¥ nÃ y, âweâ lÃ chá»§ ngá»¯, âaskedâ lÃ Äá»ng tá»«, vÃ âherâ lÃ tÃ¢n ngá»¯ cá»§a Äáº¡i tá»« âshe.â VÃ¬ váºy báº¡n pháº£i sá» dá»¥ng infinitive (âto goâ), sau tÃ¢n ngá»¯ ÄÃ³, khÃ´ng pháº£i lÃ gerunds.
ask: Can I ask him to help me clean the floor?
expect: I never expected him to become my boyfriend.
hire (give a job to someone): Did the company hire you just to sit in your office?
invite: I invited her to attend my birthday party.
order: She ordered the child to stay at home.
remind: Please remind me to go to work.
require: This job required us to have experience.
teach: That will teach you to follow the rules!
tell: Who told you to come here?
warn: I am warning you not to do this!
2.5. Qui táº¯c 5: Chá» cÃ³ gerunds theo sau giá»i tá»«.
Giá»i tá»« cÃ³ thá» ÄÆ°á»£c theo sau bá»i báº¥t cá»© tá»« nÃ o, dÃ¹ ÄÃ³ lÃ danh tá»«, Äá»ng tá»«, tÃnh tá»«,â¦ á» vÃ dá»¥ dÆ°á»i ÄÃ¢y, giá»i tá»« lÃ nhá»¯ng tá»« gáº¡ch chÃ¢n, theo sau gerunds lÃ nhá»¯ng tá»« in Äáºm.
Giá»i tá»« theo sau bá»i má»t danh tá»«:
- Movies about growing up are popular.
- She has an interest in becoming a singer.
Giá»i tá»« theo sau bá»i má»t Äáº¡i tá»«:
- I forgive you for not telling the truth.
Giá»i tá»« theo sau bá»i má»t Äá»ng tá»«:
- John is thinking about doing his homework.
- We look forward to going picnic.
Giá»i tá»« theo sau bá»i má»t tÃnh tá»«:
- I am worry of being late.
- My sister is scared of flying.
âButâ lÃ má»t tá»« ná»i káº¿t ná»i 2 má»nh Äá». Thá»nh thoáº£ng, âbutâ cÃ³ thá» ÄÃ³ng vai trÃ² nhÆ° má»t giá»i tá»«. khi âbutâ lÃ giá»i tá»«, nÃ³ cÃ³ nghÄ©a lÃ ngoáº¡i trá»«. VÃ nÃ³ ÄÆ°á»£c theo sau bá»i infinitive:
g) I had no choice but to pass the exam. (I had to pass the exam)
q) Mary made no stops on the way except to get gas.
(Mary only stopped to get gas.
q) There is nothing left for me but to eat noodles.
(I only have to eat noodles.)
3. BÃ i táºp
3.1. Exercise 1:
1. My father usually helps me_______ English.
a. to learn b. lean c. learning d. both a and b
2. He was heard_______ shout.
a. to b. of c. by d. at
3. This student expected_______ the first winner of the Grand Prix.
a. be b. being c. to be d. will be
4. I told her_______ about her wedding; everything will straighten out.
a. Don’t worry b. not to worry c. no worry d. not worry
5. May I suggest you let_______
a. Mary doing so b. Mary do so c. Mary does to d. Mary to do so
6. She_______ him when he called her.
a. pretended not hear b. pretended she heard not
c. pretended not to hear d. did not pretend hear
7. The doctor advised_______ late.
a. me not staying up b. me not stay up c. me not to stay up d. I did not stay up
8. The school superintendent told me_______
a. hurrying up b. to hurry up c. hurry up d. hurried up
9. “_______us face the enemies”, shouted the soldiers.
a. Make b. Let c. Leave d. Keep
10. Mr. Brown told the schoolgirls_______ in class.
a. don’t ear b. not to eat c. eat not d. not eat
11. I have heard Dang Thai Son_______ the piano.
a. played b. plays c. play d. to play
12. The young teachers wanted a Foreign Language Teaching workshop _______ in Ho Chi Minh City.
a. to be holding b. should hold c. to be held d. to hold
13. _______able to take part in the international math contest two years from now, Son works very hard in his math lass.
a. In order to be b. Being c. Been d. So that he be
14. Try_______ so many mistakes.
a. not to make b. not make c. to make not d. make not
15. Let me_______ from you soon.
a. to hear b. hear c. hearing d. heard
16. John is too stupid_______ understand this.
a. to b. not to c. to not d. for
17. The wind is_______ to blow the roof off.
a. strong enough b. too strong c. quiet strong d. very strong
18. My father is _______ to stay up late.
a. too tired b. enough tired c. tired enough d. so tired
19. John wanted me_______ him.
a. to be helping b. help c. to help d. I help
20. I want_______ early tomorrow morning.
a. to leave b. leaving c. me leave d. me leaving
3.2. Exercise 2:
1. I hope_______
a. to see you there b. seeing you there c. you to see there d. see you there
2. I taught_______
a. how mending a shirt b. him how to mend a shirt
c. how mend a shirt d. him how mend a shirt
3. I told_______
a. Nam to come b. to come Nam c. to Nam come d. Nam come
4. My father has decided_______ a new house.
a. find b. to find c. finding d. him find
5. Mother warned_______ the electric plug
a. here not to touch b. her touching not c. her not touch d. not touch
6. Don’t tell Tan because I don’t want_______
a. him to know b. know c. him know d. knowing
7. She explained_______
a. how to make it b. me how to make it c. me to make it d. me make it
8. Miss Brown told Mary_______ down.
a. sit b. to sit c. sitting d. sat
9. She told Mary_______ up hope.
a. not give b. do not give c. not to give d. to give not
10. Michael Faraday wrote a litter to Sir Humphry Davy_______ for work.
a. asked b. to ask c. so to ask d. in order to asking
11. Do you know_______ to play that game now?
a. way b. what c. if d. how
12. She is very glad_______ see you again.
a. in b. with c. to d. for
13. He noticed two thieves_______ out of a shop.
a. to come b. are coming c. in coming d. come
14. When will he be allowed to go home? When will they_______?
a. let him go b. let to go c. leave him to go d. leave him
15. The guide encouraged the tourists_______ the Prado Museum Madrid
a. visit b. to visit c. visiting d. to visiting
16. Mow that were finished painting the house, there’s nothing left_______
a. done b. did c. to do d. for doing
17. The superintendent promised to tear down and_______ the fire damaged school building.
a. rebuild b. to rebuild c. rebuilding d. to rebuilding
18. The mechanic needs_______ a new muffler on your car.
a. to put b. putting c. to be put d. to putting
19. Our house needs_______
a. to paint b. to be painting c. to be paint d. painting
20. Do you want _______ by the doctor?
a. to examine b. to be examined c. being examined d. being to examine
3.3. Exercise 3. Choose the correct answer.
Question 1. He is expecting â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. a trip to Ha Long Bay.
B. to make
Question 2. Students stopped â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ noise when the teacher came in.
B. to make
Question 3. She couldnât bear â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. tears when she saw the film â Romeo and Julietâ.
B. to shed
Question 4. Ann likes â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. but she hates â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ up.
A. cook/ washing
B. to cook/ wash
C. cooking/ washed
D. cooking/ washing
Question 5. I enjoy â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. to classical music.
B. to listen
Question 6. I really regret â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. your feeling when I asked you such a silly question.
B. to hurt
Question 7. Would you mind â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ me a newspaper?
B. to buy
Question 8. Would you like â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. the next dance with me?
A. to have
Question 9. Did you remember â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. Ann? â Oh, no. I completely forgot it.
B. to phone
Question 10. Does the city government intend â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ anything about pollution?
D. to do
Question 11. Those shirts need â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ but you neednât â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. them now.
A. iron/ iron
B. to iron/ to iron
C. ironing/ iron
D. ironed/ to iron
Question 12. When you see Tom, remember â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. him my regards.
B. to give
Question 13. They postpone â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. an Element School for the lack of finance.
B. to build
Question 14. Itâs no use â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. him. He never allows anybody â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. advice.
A. advise/ give
B. to advise/ to give
C. advising/ giving
D. advising/ to give
Question 15. Are his ideas worth â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦. to?
B. to listen
Question 16. He always avoids â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ me in the streets.
D. to meet
Question 17. Tom refuses â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ his address.
C. to give
Question 18. The passengers asked her how â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.to the police station?
A. to get
Question 19. I dislike â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ in line.- So do I. Thatâs why I prefer â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.. at night when there are fewer people.
A. wait/ shop
B. to wait/ shopping
C. waiting/ shopping
D. waiting/ to shop
Question 20. My grandfather is used to â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ up early in the morning.
B. to get
4. ÄÃ¡p Ã¡n
1 – B
2 – C
3 – C
4 – D
5 – A
6 – C
7 – C
8 – A
9 – B
10 – D
11 – C
12 – B
13 – C
14 – D
15 – C
16 – B
17 – C
18 – A
19 – C
20 – C
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Má»i cÃ¡c em tham kháº£o cÃ¡c tÃ i liá»u cÃ³ liÃªn quan:
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